Direct Visual Signaling as a Means for Occupant Notification in Large Spaces

Project Partners
Test Plan
Test Locations
Test Participants
Test Results & Analysis
Proposals & Comments
Performance Calculations
Test Protocol
Consent Form
Pre-Test Survey
Test Note Card
Post-Test Survey
Photos and Videos
Docs & Links
Contact Information

References have been included as footnotes on each page of the web version of this report.  They are listed again here as a Bibliography.

  1. NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA 1993 through 2002 editions.

  2. F. DeVoss, “Report of Research on Emergency Signaling Devices For Use By the Hearing Impaired”, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook, IL, 1991.

  3. Section, NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA 2002.

  4. Report on Proposals, NFPA 72, 2007 edition, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA. 

  5. The idea for the testing program was first considered by the Fire Detection Institute (FDI), a non-profit corporation dedicated to improving the fire detection and alarm standards through testing programs and research.  The FDI is working with the Fire Protection Research Foundation to leverage efforts to improve fire detection and alarm systems through research and codes. 

  6. R. Schifiliti, “Fire Alarm Testing Strategies Can Improve Occupant Response and Reduce the "Cry Wolf" Syndrome”, NEMA Supplement in Fire Protection Engineering, Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Bethesda, MD 20814, Fall 2003.

  7. “Design Factors and Retail Space Types”, The Lighting Design Lab, Seattle, WA,, December 2005.

  8. The possibility that the strobes in the Reading test were 15 cd eff. may affect this concept and support reduced intensity strobes in aisles.

  9. Letter from Robert Hill, Beacon Fire Alarms, dated August 25, 2005 to Robert Schifiliti, R.P. Schifiliti Associates, Inc.

  10. Proposal 72-685, NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code, report on Proposals, 1999 edition. 

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Last updated: 01/13/17.